[68], According to journalist and author Ed Moloney, the UVF campaign in Mid-Ulster in this period "indisputably shattered Republican morale", and put the leadership of the republican movement under intense pressure to "do something",[69] although this has been disputed by others.[who?]. Reverend Chris Hudson, who helped broker contacts between loyalist paramilitaries and the Irish government, said that aspect of the statement was significant. In October, UVF and UPV member Thomas McDowell was killed by the bomb he was planting at Ballyshannon power station. According to Billy Mitchell, Spence quizzed him and others sent to the Maze about why they were there, seeking an ideological answer to his question. [19] On 26 June, the same gang shot dead Catholic civilian Peter Ward (18) and wounded two others as they left a pub on Malvern Street in the lower Shankill. Paisley had intimated that Kilfedder, a rival for the leadership of dissident unionism, was close to Fine Gael after learning that he had attended party meetings while a student at Trinity College Dublin. Along with the UDA, it helped to enforce the strike by blocking roads, intimidating workers, and shutting any businesses that opened. Gusty Spence received primary education at Riddell Memorial (1938-43) and Hemsworth Square (1943-7) public elementary schools, both in the Shankill area. [33] His fugitive status earned him the short-lived nickname the "Orange Pimpernel". When Spence was 'abducted' in July 1972 it was the RHC who were at the forefront of this operation. [36], Spence soon became the UVF commander within the Maze Prison. It claimed the pubs were used for republican fundraising. Edward's son Ronnie was active in the Official IRA and then the INLA, serving a sentence on the INLA wing of the Maze prison while his uncle was on the UVF wing. [18][19] Some members have also been found responsible for orchestrating a series of racist attacks. VideoRecord numbers of guide dog volunteers after BBC story. She is committed to explaining your options. 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[142] Its main benefactors have been in central Scotland,[143] Liverpool,[144] Preston[144] and the Toronto area of Canada. Fire engulfed the house next door, badly burning the elderly Protestant widow who lived there. Malcolm Sutton's Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland, part of the Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN), states that the UVF and RHC was responsible for at least 485 killings during the Troubles, and lists a further 256 loyalist killings that have not yet been attributed to a particular group. Notable mourners included Unionist politicians Dawn Purvis, Mike Nesbitt, Michael McGimpsey, Hugh Smyth and Brian Ervine, UVF chief John "Bunter" Graham and UDA South Belfast brigadier Jackie McDonald. [26] He died of his wounds on 11 June. Mark Davenport from the BBC has stated that he spoke to a drug dealer who told him that he paid Billy Wright protection money. [41] Furthermore, the VPP suffered a heavy defeat in West Belfast in the October 1974 general election, when the DUP candidate John McQuade captured six times as many votes as the VPP's Ken Gibson. They also stated that they would retain their weaponry but put them beyond reach of normal volunteers. [45], In 1974, hardliners staged a coup and took over the Brigade Staff. [11] He was also a member of the Royal Black Institution and the Apprentice Boys of Derry. "[23] It was led by Gusty Spence, formerly a soldier in the British Army. [38] By this time Spence polarised opinion within the UVF, with some members fiercely loyal to a man they saw as a folk hero and others resenting his draconian leadership and increasing emphasis on politics, with one anonymous member even labelling him "a cunt in a cravat". This was a large, three-day riot between Irish nationalists and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). [103], On 25 March 2022, the UVF was blamed[by whom?] Read about our approach to external linking. ][102] On 11 April, the UVF reportedly ordered the removal of Catholic families from a housing estate in Carrickfergus. [26], On 26 June, the group shot dead a Catholic civilian and wounded two others as they left a pub on Malvern Street, Belfast. "Shortly after he was jailed, Gusty, after a period of reflection on his own life, quickly started to challenge other loyalists coming into prison to reflect on their own lives.". Openly paraded with the UVF and thanked Gusty Spence repeatedly for his services to Ulster. The funeral of 78-year-old Gusty Spence, the former leader of the UVF paramilitary organisation, has taken place in Belfast. Fifteen Catholic civilians were killed and seventeen wounded. Donoghue noted the links between Orange Lodges in Scotland and loyalist paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland and that membership of the Orange Order in Scotland at the time was 80,000, and was concentrated in Glasgow, Lanarkshire and Inverness. [47] Beginning in 1975, recruitment to the UVF, which until then had been solely by invitation, was now left to the discretion of local units.[48]. The UVF carried out dozens of sectarian murderers and it was while he was serving a sentence in Long Kesh prison for his role in the murder of a Catholic that Mr Spence began to change his views about the use of violence. [40] However, Spence's ideas were abandoned as the UVF ceasefire fell apart that same year following the Ulster Workers' Council strike and the Dublin and Monaghan bombings; the carnage of the latter had shocked and horrified Spence. In 1972, the UVF's imprisoned leader Gusty Spence was at liberty for four months following a staged kidnapping by UVF volunteers. Mr Spence, who died in hospital at the weekend after a long illness, inspired loyalists to enter politics during the peace process and helped form the Progressive Unionist Party (PUP). Human error to blame for train crash - Greek PM, At the crash site of 'no hope' - BBC reporter in Greece. During the service, mourners were told there is a campaign to have overturned the conviction for which Gusty Spence served a jail sentence, the killing of 18-year-old Belfast Catholic Peter Ward in 1966. "FIFTH REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT MONITORING COMMISSION", Select Committee on Northern Ireland Affairs - Part One: The continuing threat from paramilitary organisations, "Inside story: Why the IRA never attacked Scotland", "Revealed: how Scots loyalists sent gelignite to paramilitaries. [23] Tim Pat Coogan has described Spence as a "loyalist folk hero". [8], From an early age Spence was a member of the Prince Albert Temperance Loyal Orange Lodge, where fellow members included John McQuade. One of the first UVF members to be convicted of murder, Spence was a senior figure in the organisation for over a decade. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. [8], Spence took various manual jobs in the area until joining the British Army in 1957 as a member of the Royal Ulster Rifles. [7] His family had a long tradition of Orange Order membership. Gusty Spence is regarded as one of the founders of loyalist paramilitarism, At the crash site of 'no hope' - BBC reporter in Greece. The incumbent Chief of Staff, is alleged to be John "Bunter" Graham, referred to by Martin Dillon as "Mr. Video, Record numbers of guide dog volunteers after BBC story, Harry and Meghan told to 'vacate' Frogmore Cottage, Rare Jurassic-era bug found at Arkansas Walmart, Dozens of girls treated after new Iran poisonings, Prince Andrew offered Frogmore Cottage - reports, China and Belarus call for peace in Ukraine, Beer and wine sales in Canada fall to all-time low, Man survives 31 days in jungle by eating worms, Havana Syndrome unlikely to have hostile cause - US. Mr Lynch had many unionist friends, "some even politicians". The UVF stated that the attempted attack was a protest against the Irish Army units "still massed on the border in County Donegal". He initially refused and went on to attend his daughter's wedding. In 2007, he announced that the UVF and an associated group, the Red Hand Commando, would cease to exist in their previous form. Spence now argued that UVF members were soldiers and soldiers should not kill civilians, as had been the case at McGurk's Bar. In 2007, he announced that the UVF and an associated group, the Red Hand Commando, would cease to exist in their previous form. He lived to see the end of The Troubles and a power-sharing administration in place at Stormont but with no presence from the group he represented. One of the first UVF members to be convicted of murder, Spence was a senior figure in the organisation for over a decade. None the less, they ransacked the house and stole Spence's army medals, while the Spence family were forced to stay off the Shankill for the entirety of the loyalist feud. It was the UVF's deadliest attack in Northern Ireland, and the deadliest attack in Belfast during the Troubles. "[18], In November 2013, after a series of shootings and acts of intimidation by the UVF, Police Federation Chairman Terry Spence declared that the UVF ceasefire was no longer active. [50] The UVF was banned again on 3 October 1975 and two days later twenty-six suspected UVF members were arrested in a series of raids. He had risen through its ranks to become a sergeant in the military police and the regiments flag was draped across his coffin. In line with Mr Spences wishes, his coffin was draped with the flag of the Royal Ulster Rifles, the British army regiment in which he served for six years before he joined the UVF in the 1960s. He will be buried in Bangor after a funeral service on the Shankill Road. Referring to its activity in the early and mid-1970s, journalist Ed Moloney described no-warning pub bombings as the UVF's "forte". [64] Republicans responded to the attacks by assassinating senior UVF members John Bingham, William "Frenchie" Marchant and Trevor King[65] as well as Leslie Dallas, whose purported UVF membership was disputed both by his family and the UVF. [13], His older brother Billy Spence was a founding member of Ulster Protestant Action (UPA) in 1956[14] and Gusty Spence himself was also a member of the group. ", "UVF orders removal of Catholic families from Carrickfergus housing estate in '21st century form of ethnic cleansing'. [55], However, a granddaughter of Matilda Gould, a 74-year-old Protestant widow who had died from burns sustained in the UVF's attempted bombing of a Catholic bar next door to her home, objected to Spence being called a "peacemaker" and described him as a "bad evil man". [2] In 1978, Spence left the UVF altogether. It was not in his later life. With a few exceptions, such as Mid-Ulster brigadier Billy Hanna (a native of Lurgan), the Brigade Staff members have been from the Shankill Road or the neighbouring Woodvale area to the west. It would attack the Republic again in May 1974, during the two-week Ulster Workers' Council strike. "[140], Protestants in Canada also supported the loyalist paramilitaries in the conflict. Bates, employed as a barman at the Long Bar, was recruited into the Shankill Butchers gang in 1975 by its notorious ringleader, Lenny Murphy. Spence was praised by, among others, PUP leader Brian Ervine, who stated that "his contribution to the peace is incalculable". It would continue these tactics for the rest of its campaign. In her address to the church congregation, Ms Purvis recalled how Mr Spence had been frank about his UVF role, but that he had often shocked loyalist contemporaries by his willingness to bring an end to conflict and build bridges between working class Protestants and Catholics. The group is a proscribed organisation and is on the terrorist organisation list of the United Kingdom.[8]. Drong de dhnmharfir srathacha ab ea Bistir na Seanchille a bh gnomhach i m Bal Feirste sna 1970id. [91], In July 2011, a UVF flag flying in Limavady was deemed legal by the PSNI after the police had received complaints about the flag from nationalist politicians. A former leader of the UVF's political wing, the Progressive Unionist Party, described him as "one of the pivots on which a page of Irish history turned". [43] David Ervine and Billy Hutchinson were among the other UVF men imprisoned in the mid-1970s to become disciples of Spence. [146][147] Former MI5 agent Willie Carlin said: There were safe houses in Glasgow and Stirling. The damage from security service informers started in 1983 with "supergrass" Joseph Bennett's information, which led to the arrest of fourteen senior figures. [26] Despite the fact that control of the UVF lay (nominally at least) with Spence's closest ally Samuel "Bo" McClelland, from prison Spence was often at odds with the group's leadership, in particular with regards to the 1971 McGurk's Bar bombing. Hawara: 'What happened was horrific and barbaric'. Photograph: Peter Morrison/AP. Correspondence includes Spence's correspondence with leaders and imprisoned members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and letters concerning his imprisonment originally . Read about our approach to external linking. He was jailed for life for the murder of a Catholic barman in 1966 and served 18 years in prison. Cludach leabhair do "The Shankill Butchers" le Martin Dillon. The family of the former UVF leader Gusty Spence is planning a funeral with the emphasis on his British army past rather than his time in the paramilitary group. Former UVF leader Gusty Spence (right) announced the loyalist ceasefires in 1994 THE Ulster Volunteer Force was outlawed after two Catholic men and a Protestant pensioner were killed by the. Two UVF members, Harris Boyle and Wesley Somerville, were accidentally killed by their own bomb while carrying out this attack. He then became involved in politics and announced the landmark loyalist paramilitary ceasefires in 1994. [5] The family home was 66 Joseph Street in an area of the lower Shankill known colloquially as "the Hammer". [94] The high levels of orchestration by the leadership of the East Belfast UVF, and the alleged ignored orders from the main leaders of the UVF to stop the violence has led to fears that the East Belfast UVF has now become a separate loyalist paramilitary grouping which doesn't abide by the UVF ceasefire or the Northern Ireland Peace Process. [9] According to the book Lost Lives (2006 edition), it was responsible for 569 killings. The gang comprised, in addition to the UVF, rogue elements of the UDR, RUC, SPG, and the regular Army, all acting allegedly under the direction of the British Intelligence Corps and/or RUC Special Branch. Then, use free funeral planning tools to plan out the best funeral for your loved one. [29], On 12 August 1969, the "Battle of the Bogside" began in Derry. Among their engagements was one as guests of honour of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy. They have been engaged in orchestrating violence on our streets, and it's very clear to me that they are engaged in an array of mafia-style activities. Veteran anti-UVF campaigner Raymond McCord, whose son, Raymond Jr., a Protestant, was beaten to death by UVF men in 1997, estimates the UVF has killed more than thirty people since its 1994 ceasefire, most of them Protestants. This collection contains Gusty Spence's personal and business correspondence from 1959-1998, the bulk of which was written during . [24] On 21 May, the group issued a statement: From this day, we declare war against the Irish Republican Army and its splinter groups. [99][100], On 4 March 2021, the UVF, Red Hand Commando and UDA renounced their current participation in the Good Friday Agreement. These included the Miami Showband killings of 31 July 1975 when three members of the popular showband were killed, having been stopped at a fake British Army checkpoint outside Newry in County Down. For an online, self-service experience, please visit: What's he waiting for? [84] The Independent Monitoring Commission stated Moffett was killed by UVF members acting with the sanction of the leadership. [113] At other times, attacks on Catholic civilians were claimed as "retaliation" for IRA actions, since the IRA drew almost all of its support from the Catholic community. The ferry [between Scotland and Northern Ireland] was pivotal in getting arms into the north and anything like checkpoints, or armed police and Army in Scotland would have b******d that all up.[148] An Irish government memo written by David Donoghue stated: "The commonest contribution of Scots UDA and UVF is to send gelignite. VideoAt the crash site of 'no hope' - BBC reporter in Greece, Why Covid lab-leak theory is now being taken seriously, Blackpink lead top stars back on the road in Asia, Exploring the rigging claims in Nigeria's elections, 'Wales is in England' gaffe sparks TikToker's trip, Ukraine war casts shadow over India's G20 ambitions, Record numbers of guide dog volunteers after BBC story. In October 1975, after staging a counter-coup, the Brigade Staff acquired a new leadership of moderates with Tommy West serving as the Chief of Staff. It comprises high-ranking officers under a Chief of Staff or Brigadier-General. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. "BBC News Man held over East Belfast police murder bid", "Surge in Belfast violence blamed on resurgent UVF", "The Beast from East Belfast could put an end to flags violence right now but he won't", "East Belfast UVF: Mission Accomplished? He was shot dead by the IRA in November 1982, four months after his release from the Maze Prison. Traduzioni in contesto per "ieri sono scese nelle strade" in italiano-inglese da Reverso Context: Decine di migliaia di persone ieri sono scese nelle strade di Atene, dando vita a uno sciopero generale che ha costretto la Grecia a fermarsi davanti alla protesta contro il piano di austerity imposto dall'UE, dalla Banca centrale europea di Francoforte e dall'FMI. [125] Historically, the number of active UVF members in July 1971 was stated by one source to be no more than 20. It was during his time in the Maze prison that Spence began to talk politics and encouraged others to do the same. Also, why did the author not probe the close relationship between Gusty Spence and the RHC? [56] The UVF's activities in the last years of the decade were increasingly being curtailed by the number of UVF members who were sent to prison. Whether you need additional information, document your wishes without paying or to arrange and pre-fund your funeral, Berenice is ready to listen and provide assistance. Video, Record numbers of guide dog volunteers after BBC story, Harry and Meghan told to 'vacate' Frogmore Cottage, Dozens of girls treated after new Iran poisonings, Rare Jurassic-era bug found at Arkansas Walmart, Ed Sheeran says wife developed tumour in pregnancy, China and Belarus call for peace in Ukraine, Covid origin likely China lab incident - FBI chief, Man survives 31 days in jungle by eating worms, Havana Syndrome unlikely to have hostile cause - US. Gusty was a man of war, he was also a man of peace, she said. Mr Spence said last night he was an eternal optimist" where the present situation in the North was concerned. With Moore now deceased, the only senior figure still alive is "Mr A". [2] He rose to the rank of Provost Sergeant (battalion police). A man once involved in conflict. He would go on to hold private talks with the then Taoiseach Albert Reynolds. [58][59][105] Graham has held the position since he assumed office in 1976. Mr Lynch's widow, Norma, recollected last night that the late Catholic primate of Ireland, Cardinal O Fiaich, had said that "if there was a hope for peace in Ireland it would come through Gusty". [81], In June 2009 the UVF formally decommissioned their weapons in front of independent witnesses as a formal statement of decommissioning was read by Dawn Purvis and Billy Hutchinson. This collection contains Gusty Spence's personal and business correspondence from 1959-1998, the bulk of which was written during Spence's time in prison (1966-1984). VideoRecord numbers of guide dog volunteers after BBC story. He was born in the Shankill Road area of Belfast. It was not in his later life. As a PUP representative he took a principal role in delivering the loyalist ceasefires of 1994. Hawara: 'What happened was horrific and barbaric'. So when her husband had first made contact with Mr Spence "it was like talking to someone we had always known". Augustus Gusty Spence (78), was convicted for a sectarian murder in 1966 and was a figurehead of the paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) which killed hundreds of people when the full violence of the Troubles began three years later. [21] Two days later, the Government of Northern Ireland declared the UVF illegal. Augustus Andrew "Gusty" Spence (28 June 1933 [2] - 25 September 2011) was a leader of the paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and a leading loyalist politician in Northern Ireland. [36] Catholic churches were also attacked. "However he did dedicate himself to peace and reconciliation for much of his later life so he will also be remembered as a major influence in drawing loyalism away from sectarian strife," he added. [155], Billy Wright, the commander of the UVF Mid-Ulster Brigade, is believed to have started dealing drugs in 1991[156] as a lucrative sideline to paramilitary murder. [66] The UVF also killed senior IRA paramilitary members Liam Ryan, John 'Skipper' Burns and Larry Marley. VideoRecord numbers of guide dog volunteers after BBC story. He added: "I think it helped to set some of the tone to bring us to where we are now.". A former leader of the UVF's political wing, the Progressive Unionist Party, described him as "one of the pivots on which a page of Irish history turned". [22] Spence's involvement in the killings gave him legendary status among many young loyalists and he was claimed as an inspiration by the likes of Michael Stone. During its 12 July 1967 march, the Orange lodge to which he belonged stopped outside the prison in tribute to him. She died of her injuries on 27 June. Spence said loyalists offered "abject and true remorse" to the loved ones of all the innocent victims of the Troubles. This was in retaliation for attacks on Loyalist homes the previous weekend and after a young girl was hit in the face with a brick by Republicans. A number of friends and family members spoke at the service at St Michael's Church of Ireland on the Shankill Road. . '[159], The UVF's satellite organisation, the Red Hand Commando, was described by the IMC in 2004 as "heavily involved" in drug dealing. Gusty Spence announced the loyalist paramilitary ceasefires in 1994, At the crash site of 'no hope' - BBC reporter in Greece. But despite the statement, the UVF was subsequently involved in sporadic violence, including several murders. The unnamed woman stated, "When you go out and throw a petrol bomb through a widow's window, you're no peacemaker. [120] However, from 1977 bombs largely disappeared from the UVF's arsenal owing to a lack of explosives and bomb-makers, plus a conscious decision to abandon their use in favour of more contained methods. Is UVFs Beast in the East behind new wave of riots? The UVF's declared goals were to combat Irish republicanism particularly the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and to maintain Northern Ireland's status as part of the United Kingdom. "The Dublin and Monaghan bombings: Cover-up and incompetence". He added: "He formed a relationship with Cardinal O'Fiach and that was in some of our ways of thinking in those days a big step because the Catholic church in particular were the enemy. [27][28] Spence respected some Irish republican paramilitaries, who he felt also lived as soldiers, and to this end he wrote a sympathetic letter to the widow of Official IRA leader Joe McCann after he was killed in 1972. [3] Spence was the sixth of seven children, their birth order being Billy, Cassie, Jim, Bobby, Ned junior, Gusty and Lily. "[154], According to Alan McQuillan, the assistant director of the Assets Recovery Agency in 2005, "In the loyalist community, drug dealing is run by the paramilitaries and it is generally run for personal gain by a large number of people." eva air business class london to bangkok, sherwin williams big chill vs on the rocks, miami police corruption 1980s, It helped to set some of the first UVF members were soldiers and soldiers should not kill civilians as. Set some of the Royal Ulster Constabulary ( RUC ) first made contact with mr Spence said offered. To him sergeant in the organisation for over a decade now argued that UVF members acting with UDA! Uda, it was during his time in the organisation for over decade. Tactics for the content of external sites known colloquially as `` the and. 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